Reviews critically discuss crucial issues which affect more or less all classes of sensors and in some cases still limit their performances and/or prevent their use in real life; important aspects of these are immobilization of the recognition element, which should preserve its chemical and/or biological functionality, and the integration between recognition element and transducer. Moreover, insights are provided on problems related to miniaturization, stability, reliability, and lowcost production, and future perspectives for each class of sensing device are emphasized.
Published on: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Number 5 February 2012
Cover Image: The cover image illustrates some of the many approaches scientists use to manipulate surfaces for analytical purposes. Pictures in the circles, starting from the upper left side and going clockwise, show a nano-patterned electrode circuit for sensor fabrication, a supramolecular architecture for bio-recognition, an AFM image of a polymeric thin film, a fluorescence image of a protein self assembled monolayer. (Cover image courtesy of Luigia Sabbatini and Luisa Torsi, University of Bari, Italy)